If you get this error in the Xcode Archive Step, you should check your Xcode Projects settings. Most likely you have the Skip Install option set to YES.
This should only be used for iOS frameworks! For iOS apps this should be set to NO.
You can check out the official documentation. Look up the Xcode successfully archived my application, but the Archives Organizer does not list my archive section.
If something modifies the Build Setting -> Deployment -> Installation Directory settings in your Xcode Project, it can result in an .xcarchive where your app is not generated into the canonical Products/Applications folder, but instead into a Products/Users/USERNAME/... folder, including the full absolute path of an intermediate build.
Make sure that the Installation Directory option is set to $(LOCAL_APPS_DIR) (the default value when you generate a new iOS Xcode Project) or /Applications (which is the default value of $(LOCAL_APPS_DIR) in your Xcode Project settings, and that no build tool you use modifies this option.
Huge thanks to Antje, who reported this solution!